Glossary of Terms

  • Albumin
    it is a protein made by the liver and is distributed by the circulatory system through the body.

  • Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)
    it involves combining the sperm with the eggs, which are removed from the woman’s ovaries. Then combined sperm and egg is returned to the woman’s body or is given to another woman.

  • Azoospermia
    this is when the spermatozoa is not present in the semen, which is an important factor for conception.

  • Blastocyst
    an ovum fertilized by the sperm and is produced by multiple cell divisions that occurs in the fallopian tube.

  • Catherer
    a hollow tube made of rubber inserted into the body that delivers or removes the fluids.

  • Cervix
    is the lower end of the womb (uterus). It is at the top of the vagina.

  • Chromosomes
    a DNA molecule associated with proteins carrying hereditary information of an organism.

  • Conscious Sedation
    a medicine preventing any feeling of pain and helps one relax during a dental or medical procedure.

  • Culture media
    it can be in a form of liquid or solid(gel) that gives proper nutrients to support the growth of cells and plants. Made up of amino acids, sugar, nucleid acids and other compounds.

  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    is considered as building blocks of the body carrying generic information and hereditary characteristics present in every human and other organism.

  • Downs Syndrome
    is an extra chromosome that causes problems to the body and brain development. The symptopms can be range from mild to severe and can vary from person to person.

  • Embryo
    the development of an individual from the time of fertilization to the end of eighth week.

  • Endometrium
    the lining inside the uterus. When it thickens during the menstrual cycle it serves as a place for the implantation of the embryo should conception happen.

  • Fallopian Tubes
    it serves as a connection between the ovaries and uterus. It is where the fertilization of the egg takes place.

  • Follicle
    is a fluid-filled sac found in the ovaries of the female reproductive system containing the oocyte or an immature egg that is.

  • Gametes
    is a cell which fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually.

  • Genes
    are made of DNA, which decides what the organism would look like and how it behaves in its environment.

  • Hepatitis
    is an infection that is caused by a virus and affects the liver. Common types of viruses are Hepatits A, B and C.

  • Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
    are cells that form the placenta produced during pregnancy to nourish fertilized eggs.

  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
    a virus that can destroy cells that fight against diseases and infections, slowly weakening the immune system of a human being . It can also be pass from person to person through blood-to-blood and sexual contact.

  • Hormone
    a chemical substance that acts as a messenger that transports signal from one cell to another to function properly.

  • Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)
    performs a diagnosis of infertility in a form of an X-ray revealing any abnormalities inside the uterus and any tubal problems that prevents pregnancy.

  • Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
    a sperm that is injected directly into the egg. When the egg has been fertilized it will be transferred to the woman’s womb.

  • Implantation
    attachment of the fertilized egg or blastocyst that travel through the fallopian tube to the uterus lining.

  • Incubator
    an apparatus that controls the environmemtal conditions such as temperature, humidity, etc. for the development of microorganisms and for the protection of premature or weak babies.

  • Insemination
    injecting semeninal fluid in the female reproductive organ.

  • Intercourse
    sexual relation between a man and a woman involving genital contact.

  • Laparoscopy
    a surgical procedure inserting a fiber-optic instrument to view the abdominal organs.

  • Luteinising Hormone (LH)
    its function is to control the sex steroid production in men and women and supports the production of germ cell.

  • Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA)
    a process done by using a needle to take the sperm directly from the epididyms, where sperms are stored while they mature.

  • Miscarriage
    loss of a fetus before the 20th week of being pregnant. This is also called as spontaneous abortion.

  • Mosaicism
    a tissue that contains two or more different types of genetic cells.

  • Multiple Gestation
    two or more eggs that are fertilized at the same time and are being release from the ovary.

  • Neural Tube
    an embryo’s precursor to the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord.

  • Neural Tube Defect
    an abnormal development caused by the failure of the neural tube.

  • Oestradoil
    a steroid hormone that maintains the female reproductive system, promotes the development of breast tissue and increases the thickness of the cartilage and bone.

  • Oocyte
    a female sex cell fertilized by a sperm.

  • Ovarian hyperstimulation
    stimulates the development in the woman’s ovaries when taking hormonal medicine.

  • Ovary
    produces and releases eggs to be fertilized by the sperm.

  • Ovulation
    the release of eggs from the ovary.

  • Pap smear
    a test that collects a cell sample from the cervix.

  • Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
    a technology used in IVF cycle to identify defects and prevent diseases in implantation and pregnancy.

  • Pre-implantation Genetic Screening (PGS)
    checking the number of chromosomes in an embryo and analyzes any abnormalities in the chromosomes.

  • Progesterone
    hormones that are released in a woman’s body by the ovaries and helps regulates the menstrual cycle.

  • Pro-nucleus
    pro-nuclei (pl), a haploid nucleus of a male(sperm) and a female(egg) fuse together during fertilization.

  • Rubella
    known as German Measles, a contagious disease that is caused by the rubella virus, which can be passed from person-to-person when coughing or sneezing via air droplets and can also be present in urine and feces on the skin.

  • Semen
    fluid that contains sperm and other secretion, which is released by the male reproductive organ.

  • Sperm
    a male reproductive cell transmitted by the male containing genetic information. When it combines with a female reproductive cell, it produces a zygote.

  • Sperm Washing
    a method used to treat male infertility. It is where the sperm cells are separated from the seminal fluids.

  • Syphilis
    a infectious disease that can either be acquired through sexual contact or congenital.

  • Tenaculum
    an instrument used for holding and lifting parts such as organs or piece of tissue during surgery.

  • Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA)
    a harvesting technique used for obtaining sperm from patients with azoospermia.

  • Testicle
    a male’s main source of hormones that controls the male characteristics and development of the reproductive organ. It also stores and produces sperm.

  • Turners syndrome
    caused by having an incomplete chromosomes and affects the sexual development and growth of females.

  • Ultrasound
    a technique that uses sound waves to visualize images and examine different organs in the body.

  • Uterus
    a hollow organ that develops and nourishes the embryo and fetus.

  • Vagina
    a passageway that leads to the opening of the vulva to the uterus of the female.

  • Zona pellucida
    a thick, transparent outer membrane that surrounds the mammalian ovum.

  • Zygote
    the result of two gametes joined by means of sexual reproduction.