Female Infertility Tests
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH)
- It initiates follicular growth or stimulates production of egg.
- Regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body.
- In men FSH initiates spermatogenesis or stimulates the production of sperm.
- Evaluate reproductive sufficiency (ovarian reserve) in women and low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) in men.
- When egg production diminishes the FSH level will increase (Menopause).
- However, for men high FSH means primary testicular failure.
- In women, it is measured in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, typically day two to day five from the start of your menstrual period
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
- In women, LH helps regulate egg production and menstruation
- In men, it stimulates production of testosterone, which helps in the development of reproductive tissue in testis and prostate.
- Same as with FSH, LH evaluates the ovarian reserve and sperm count in men. ,
- It is measured in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, typically day two to day five from the start of your menstrual period.
- Or in the middle of the menstrual cycle wherein a peak in LH (LH surge) causes ovulation.
- High LH level is evident in Premature menopause, Polycystic ovarian syndrome and Testicular failure
- Estradiol is the most potent occurring estrogen (primary female sex hormone)
- Responsible for the development of uterus, fallopian tubes and vagina.
- The main hormone in the development of secondary sex characteristics in female(e.g breast development)
- Evaluation of ovarian function
- For ART patient, serial estradiol measurements are needed to monitor follicular development. As the follicles matures the estradiol level increases.
- Estradiol level is at its peak before ovulation.
- Significant elevation in estradiol measurement is noted in patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and endometriosis.
- Progesterone is a hormone involved in menstrual cycle, gestation or pregnancy and embryogenesis (development of embryo).
- Progesterone plays an important role in thickening the lining of the uterus, which prepares the implantation of a fertilized egg.
- It also decreases the contractility of the uterine smooth muscle.
- Progesterone inhibits lactation during pregnancy and triggers milk production.
- Progesterone is measured after ovulation approximately Day 19-21 of the menstrual cycle.
- If pregnancy does not occur progesterone level drops and the endometrium breaks down and menstruation begins.
- In IVF patients, progesterone is used for luteal support to increase the chance of implantation and embryogenesis.
Hormone of lactation and is secreted by the pituitary gland.
- Prolactin is necessary for the maintenance of ovarian structures that secrete progesterone.
- Elevated prolactin secretion can suppress the secretion of FSH and GnRH, leading to hypogonadism, and sometimes causing erectile dysfunction in men
Beta – HCG(BHCG)
- Human chorionic gonadotropin
- Made by the cells that form the placenta, which nourishes the egg after it has been fertilized and becomes attached to the uterine wall.
- Promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum during the beginning of pregnancy.
- Promotes angiogenesis in uterine vasculature
- Causes uterine growth parallel to fetal growth.
- Can be measured in blood and urine. However, quantitative result in the blood is preferred as it will show the baseline value of HCG.
- It is also used to diagnose and monitor germ cell tumors and gestational trophoblastic diseases.