Female Infertility Tests

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH)

Menstrual Cycle

  • It initiates follicular growth or stimulates production of egg.
  • Regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body.
  • In men FSH initiates spermatogenesis or stimulates the production of sperm.

Significance:

  • Evaluate reproductive sufficiency (ovarian reserve) in women and low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) in men.
  • When egg production diminishes the FSH level will increase (Menopause).
  • However, for men high FSH means primary testicular failure.
  • In women, it is measured in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, typically day two to day five from the start of your menstrual period

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

  • In women, LH helps regulate egg production and menstruation
  • In men, it stimulates production of testosterone, which helps in the development of reproductive tissue in testis and prostate.

Significance:

  • Same as with FSH, LH evaluates the ovarian reserve and sperm count in men. ,
  • It is measured in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, typically day two to day five from the start of your menstrual period.
  • Or in the middle of the menstrual cycle wherein a peak in LH (LH surge) causes ovulation.
  • High LH level is evident in Premature menopause, Polycystic ovarian syndrome and Testicular failure

Estradiol (E2)

Estradiol (E2)

Estradio (E2)

  • Estradiol is the most potent occurring estrogen (primary female sex hormone)

Functions:

  • Responsible for the development of uterus, fallopian tubes and vagina.
  • The main hormone in the development of secondary sex characteristics in female(e.g breast development)

Significance:

  • Evaluation of ovarian function
  • For ART patient, serial estradiol measurements are needed to monitor follicular development. As the follicles matures the estradiol level increases.
  • Estradiol level is at its peak before ovulation.
  • Significant elevation in estradiol measurement is noted in patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and endometriosis.

Progesterone (PRG/P4)

Progesterone (PRG/P4)

Progesterone (PRG/P4)

  • Progesterone is a hormone involved in menstrual cycle, gestation or pregnancy and embryogenesis (development of embryo).

Function:

  • Progesterone plays an important role in thickening the lining of the uterus, which prepares the implantation of a fertilized egg.
  • It also decreases the contractility of the uterine smooth muscle.
  • Progesterone inhibits lactation during pregnancy and triggers milk production.

Significance:

  • Progesterone is measured after ovulation approximately Day 19-21 of the menstrual cycle.
  • If pregnancy does not occur progesterone level drops and the endometrium breaks down and menstruation begins.
  • In IVF patients, progesterone is used for luteal support to increase the chance of implantation and embryogenesis.

PROLACTIN (PRL)

PROLACTIN (PRL)

PROLACTIN (PRL)

Hormone of lactation and is secreted by the pituitary gland.

Function:

  • Prolactin is necessary for the maintenance of ovarian structures that secrete progesterone.

Significance:

  • Elevated prolactin secretion can suppress the secretion of FSH and GnRH, leading to hypogonadism, and sometimes causing erectile dysfunction in men

Beta – HCG(BHCG)

Beta- HCG(BHCG)

Beta- HCG(BHCG)

  • Human chorionic gonadotropin
  • Made by the cells that form the placenta, which nourishes the egg after it has been fertilized and becomes attached to the uterine wall.

Function:

  • Promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum during the beginning of pregnancy.
  • Promotes angiogenesis in uterine vasculature
  • Causes uterine growth parallel to fetal growth.

Significance:

  • Can be measured in blood and urine. However, quantitative result in the blood is preferred as it will show the baseline value of HCG.
  • It is also used to diagnose and monitor germ cell tumors and gestational trophoblastic diseases.