IVF (In Vitro Fertilization)
Conventional-IVF: The original ‘Test-Tube baby’ technique
This is the oldest form of Assisted Reproductive Technique, that involves the insemination of Cumulus-Oocyte-Complex with spermatozoa in a petri dish.
Prior to stimulation the seminal fluid is processed and only the progressive sperm and adequate amount of sperm are inseminated.
The events that take place during con-IVF includes:
1. Sperm penetration to the COC
The sperms are naturally attracted to the COC by some chemical attractants
2. Sperm attaches and penetrates the zona (outer shell of the egg)
The sperm releases an enzyme that can penetrate the COC and the best sperm will penetrate the zona and finally to the plasma membrane.
3. Sperm-Egg Plasma membrane binding
As the sperm binds to the oolema, a protein in the egg activates and this blocks further sperm penetration to avoid polyspermy.
After the sperm-egg fusion, the sperm’s head decondensed in the egg cytoplasm. A successful fertilization can be observed when a Male and Female pronuclei appears.